Prevalence of Clostridium Difficile Infection in Patients After Radical Cystectomy and Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy



Clostridium Difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. This study evaluates the prevalence and predictors of Clostridium Difficile infections in patients undergoing radical cystectomy with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Retrospective chart review was performed of all patients undergoing cystectomy and urinary diversion at a single institution from 2011–2017. Infection was documented in all cases with testing for Clostridium Difficile polymerase chain reaction toxin B. Patient and disease related factors were compared for those who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy vs. those who did not in order to identify potential risk factors associated with C. Difficile infections. Chi squared test and logistic regression analysis were used to determine statistical significance.

Of 350 patients who underwent cystectomy, 41 (11.7%) developed Clostridium Difficile in the 30 day post-operative period. The prevalence of C. Difficile infection was higher amongst the patients undergoing cystectomy compared to the non-cystectomy admissions at our hospital (11.7 vs. 2.9%). Incidence was not significantly different among those who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer versus those who underwent the procedure for other reasons. Median time to diagnosis was 6 days (range 3–28 days). The prevalence of C. Diff infections was not significantly different among those who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy vs. those who did not (11% vs. 10.4% p = 0.72). A significant association between C. Difficile infection was not seen with proton pump inhibitor use (p = 0.48), patient BMI (p = 0.67), chemotherapeutic regimen (p = 0.94), individual surgeon (p = 0.54), type of urinary diversion (0.41), or peri-operative antibiotic redosing (p = 0.26).

Clostridium Difficile infection has a higher prevalence in patients undergoing cystectomy. No significant association between prevalence and exposure to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was seen.


Authors: Cotter, Katherine J. | Fan, Yunhua | Sieger, Gretchen K. | Weight, Christopher J. | Konety, Badrinath R.

Journal: Bladder Cancer, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 305-310, 2017

Keywords: Bladder cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, Clostridium Difficile, radical cystectomy